ChatGPT study unveils AI's impact on mental health, emphasizing trust, stereotypes, and job anxiety. Ethical design crucial for positive user interactions

Minds and machines: Unveiling the psychological effects of chatting with AI chatbots

ChatGPT study unveils AI's impact on mental health, emphasizing trust, stereotypes, and job anxiety. Ethical design crucial for positive user interactions.

Imagine starting your day with ChatGPT, discussing your plans over coffee. AI and chatbots, once futuristic, are now everyday tools. But have you considered how these interactions may affect your mental state? A recent study examines the impact of AI on our mental state, uncovering how AI can subtly influence our emotions and cognition and offering insights into our evolving tech interactions. In our digital age, these findings help us better understand our changing relationship with AI. It helps us get a better grip on how we’re changing the way we interact with AI.

A recent study involving 732 surveyed individuals provides a comprehensive examination of how engagement with AI, such as ChatGPT, can impact our mental well-being. Its primary focus was to explore the correlation between users’ trust in ChatGPT and its influence on their mental state.

Deciphering the AI-user relationship

The study primarily aimed to investigate how people perceive the chatbot. This involved assessing whether individuals believe the chatbot exhibits biases or stereotypes and how these perceptions may impact their self-esteem and overall mental health. In simpler terms, the study sought to determine whether our perceptions of ChatGPT, such as perceiving bias, can influence our self-esteem and mental well-being. To figure out these complex relationships, the researchers used a high-level statistical approach called structural equation modeling. This method is quite sophisticated and helps in understanding how different factors, such as trust in ChatGPT and our perceptions of it, interact and influence our psychological health.

This study is noteworthy for its attempt to understand the mental and emotional aspects of our interactions with AI. This is particularly relevant today, given the growing integration of chatbots like ChatGPT into our everyday routines. By examining these dynamics, the study reveals the expanding influence of chatbots and their impact on our psychological experiences.

ChatGPT study unveils AI's impact on mental health, emphasizing trust, stereotypes, and job anxiety. Ethical design crucial for positive user interactions
Credit. Midjourney

Key findings

This study provides intriguing insights that are particularly pertinent in today’s digital era. Consider this scenario: Emily uses ChatGPT daily for work and personal tasks. She observes that the more she trusts ChatGPT’s responses, the better her self-esteem becomes. This aligns with the study’s key finding: individuals who place greater trust in ChatGPT often experience improved self-image. This demonstrates that users like Emily, who have faith in the chatbot’s capabilities, often see a positive impact on their self-esteem.

The second finding delves into something more subtle: how users feel if they think ChatGPT is stereotyping them. Take John, for example. He sometimes feels that ChatGPT’s answers are biased, which makes him uncomfortable and negatively affects his mental health. On the other hand, when he feels that ChatGPT’s responses are unbiased and positive, his overall well-being improves. This highlights how important it is for AI developers to pay attention to how chatbots talk and respond.

Lastly, the study looks at how job-related anxiety can change the way people interact with ChatGPT. For someone with a lot of job anxiety, their experience and feelings towards ChatGPT might be different from those of someone with less anxiety, and this can have a bigger impact on their mental health.

AI’s impact on self-perception and mental health

These findings are crucial for understanding how AI interactions directly affect our mental health. They also add new layers to what we already know by showing the complex emotional aspects of human-AI relationships. This research paves the way for more empathetic and psychologically aware AI development, ensuring that future technologies support the mental well-being of their users.

ChatGPT can positively influence our self-esteem and overall well-being. The human-AI interaction highlights the potential of AI to not only assist in practical tasks but also to contribute to our psychological health, especially when AI is perceived as understanding and supportive.

Mohammed Salah


The findings from the “Chatting with ChatGPT: Decoding the Mind of Chatbot Users” study shed light on crucial aspects of AI interaction and its psychological effects, emphasizing the necessity for ethically designed AI that prioritizes user mental health. The study’s insights include:

  1. Positive impact of trust in AI on self-esteem: Trust in AI, like ChatGPT, can significantly boost self-esteem, highlighting the need for AI systems to be reliable and trustworthy. This trust can be built through consistent, accurate responses and transparent operations.
  2. Adverse effects of perceived stereotyping: The study points out that if users perceive AI as stereotyping, it can negatively impact their psychological health. This calls for AI programming that is inclusive and free from biases. Developing AI that understands and respects diverse perspectives is crucial.
  3. Influence of job anxiety: The study also finds that job-related anxiety can influence how users interact with AI, suggesting the need for AI that can adapt to individual user needs, especially in professional environments where stress is common. Personalized AI interactions could be more effective in such scenarios.

Ethical AI design and mental health

These findings are increasingly relevant as AI becomes more intertwined with our daily experiences. Psychology Today reports growing concerns about AI’s role in shaping human experiences. People are often apprehensive about AI technology, with recent polls indicating rising worries about the proliferation of AI. This discomfort can affect how people trust and interact with AI chatbots.

Moreover, research into fostering trust and bonding with AI chatbots has shown that when chatbots share more about themselves, it can deepen the interaction and make the experience more enjoyable. This suggests that designing chatbots to appear more human-like, showing vulnerability, and having cultural familiarity in communication could enhance their trustworthiness.

Balancing the development of AI chatbots is crucial. While there are potential benefits in sectors like healthcare, the risks to human well-being must be carefully considered. It’s essential for AI chatbots to be developed ethically, ensuring they promote positive interactions and minimize potential negative psychological impacts. This approach will be critical for AI developers, psychologists, and users alike, as it balances technological innovation with human-centric considerations.

Shaping the future of AI and human interaction

The study underlines the intricate relationship between AI and human psychology. It emphasises the critical need for AI development to be guided by ethical principles, with a focus on mental health. As AI becomes an increasingly integral part of our everyday lives, understanding its psychological effects is essential. This research paves the way for further investigations into how AI can be designed to positively impact human psychology. It stresses the importance of ensuring that technological progress is aligned with the betterment of human well-being.

As we continue to explore AI-human interaction, it’s clear that the direction we take from here will have profound implications for our society as a whole. This study marks just the beginning of a journey into understanding and shaping the future of AI in a way that harmoniously integrates with human life.


Journal reference

Salah, M., Alhalbusi, H., Ismail, M. M., & Abdelfattah, F. (2023). Chatting with ChatGPT: Decoding the mind of Chatbot users and unveiling the intricate connections between user perception, trust and stereotype perception on self-esteem and psychological well-being. Research Square, 1-26.

Mohammed Salah is an Assistant Professor at the Modern College of Business and Science (MCBS) in Oman. His research primarily encompasses social psychology, public administration, and artificial intelligence. Currently, he is delving into understanding how artificial intelligence, specifically generative AI, influences decision-making processes.

Fadi Abdelfattah is an Associate Professor at the Modern College of Business and Science (MCBS) in Oman. His research interests include consumer behaviour, service quality, knowledge-sharing, and healthcare management.

Hussam Al Halbusi is currently a visiting Assistant Professor in the Management Department at Ahmed Bin Mohammed Military College (ABMMC), Qatar. His research interests lie in strategic management, leadership, innovation, and sustainability.

Dr. Maria Mohd Ismail is a Senior Lecturer at the Department of Political Science, Public Administration, and Development Studies, Faculty of Business and Economics, University Malaya. She holds a PhD in Public Policy from University Malaya. Her areas of expertise include public administration, public policy and governance, urban and rural planning, as well as Organizational Behaviour (OB) and Industrial Relations.